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Use of helmets, different types, archaeology: helmets in the Bible

Helmets

Different types of armour in the ancient lands of the Bible: archaeology

Armor

Horses in warfare: chariot horse in the ancient world

Chariot horses

Different types of shields used in ancient warfare: Bible archaeology

Shields 

Development of the bow and arrow are weapons of war in ancient Bible lands

Bow & arrow

Slings in ancient warfare: David and Goliath: what archaeology tells us about the Bible story

Slings in warfare

War chariots: different types in different countries of the ancient Bible lands

War Chariots


 


 


 

 

Bible Study Resource

Different Types of Axe

The axe was designed for hand-to-hand fighting and consisted of a relatively short wooden handle, one end of which was fitted with the operative lethal part which was either metal or stone. The weapon was swung by the handle, and the head brought forcefully down on the enemy.

The purpose of the axe was to pierce and cut, and it needed a blade that was light and sharp. The key problem in the manufacture of the axe was the fitting of head to handle in such a way that it would not fly off when swung nor break off when struck. 

Ceremonial axe from Obelisks Temple, Byblos. Circa 1900BC To prevent the weapon from leaving the soldier’s hand when swung, the handle was widest at the point of grip, tapering toward the head, or it was curved, or sometimes both. 

The problems involved in the manufacture of the axe were complex, and attempts to solve these problems led to the variety of shapes devised for the blade. Since the axe was designed for hand-to-hand fighting, its development was guided by the need either to pierce or to cut. The quality of the enemy's armor at the time dictated which of these was important. 

This, too, influenced the form of the axeblade. The cutting axe was effective against an enemy who fought without armor. But if he wore armor, the piercing axe was required, with power of penetration. Axes could therefore be broadly divided according to shape, which coincides with their function: 

  • the axe with a long blade ending in a short sharp edge was for piercing 

  • the axe with a short blade and a wide edge was for cutting

Duck-billed axe excavated at UgaritIt was also necessary to produce an axe that did not separate into two pieces when it was used. The blade had to be fitted to the handle in a way that it would not fly off in action. This, of course, is a danger in all such instruments, even the axe used by the laborer. The Bible draws attention to it in Deuteronomy 19:5: “And when a man goeth into the wood with his neighbor to hew wood, and his hand fetcheth a stroke with the axe to cut down the tree, and the head slippeth from the helve, and lighteth upon his neighbor, that he die. . . .” 

Axes are classified according to the way the blade is joined to the handle: 

  • the socket type, in which the handle is fitted into a socket in the blade.

  • the tang type, in which the rear of the blade is fitted into the handle. In this type, the join was strengthened by binding or intertwining with cord. 

  • the epsilon axe, which gets its name because it is shaped like the figure 3, or the Greek letter epsilon. It has a short blade and wide edge, the rear of the blade having three projections or tangs by which it was fitted to the handle. 

  • the anchor axe, with a longer central tang projection from its rear fitted with a crossbar, by which it was fitted better to the handle. This projection and bar and the shape of the blade gave it the outline of an anchor. 

  • the eye axe, with two large holes in the blade.

  • the duck-bill axe, (see right) with the longer blade and two smaller holes. 

The variety of axes reflects the attempts of armorers at different periods to meet the new technical and tactical demands of the times. 


The Sumerians Develop the Axe

Copper axehead circa 3100BC found as part of a cache of about 450 objects

One of the most remarkable technical achievements of the Sumerians was their development of an axe with a pipe-like socket, its blade narrow, long, and very sharp-edged. In doing this, they used already existing prototypes of such axes. We know this because of the dramatic discovery of a great number of copper axes in a cave in the Judean Desert, in the Dead Sea in Israel (see the socketed axehead circa 3100BC at right).

The appearance of this type of piercing axe among the Sumerians is no accident, for it is at this time and in this land that we find the first evidence of a high standard metal helmet (see Helmets). Such helmets could be rendered ineffective only by a piercing axe which was swung with force, with a handle very firmly attached to the blade. 

Socketed axehead from Khafajah, early dynastic period The Sumerian axeblade (see right) was made of copper. It was long and narrow, getting slightly wider and rounder near the edge. Its socket was rather like a smoking pipe set at an acute angle, so that the handle, which fitted into it, sloped forward. To give a better grip and prevent its slipping out of the hand, the handle was slightly curved toward the bottom, where it was also thickened. This axe was the personal weapon of the spear-carrying infantry and of the charioteers (see an example from the Standard of Ur, below). 

Detail from the Standard of Ur, showing charioteer with reins in one hand and ax under the other arm, circa 2500BC

From the illustrated monuments and from the axeheads themselves which archaeologists have found, we now know their characteristics and the way they were used. The Sumerian axe continued to be used right into the Accadian period, particularly in Syria at the end of the third millennium, as we can see from the lethal axes discovered in the tomb of Til Barsip (see below). Syrian socketed axeheads, end of third millennium

Later on axe-makers added a small blade or a lub (in the form of an animal head) at the rear of the socket. And there were changes in the shape of the blade which made it a more effective piercing instrument. On occasion, the blade was much narrower and tapered toward the edge, giving it almost the form of a large peg (see right). This type, together with the beautiful axe of Naram-Sin - a long, narrow-bladed weapon with a socket no longer in the form of a pipe, are the prototype of many of the axes which appear in the Middle Bronze period.  

Another type of piercing axe in use at the time was the axe of Anatolia. This could almost be called a double-bladed weapon. Its main blade, long and narrow, was similar to the Sumerian blade. On the other side of the socket was a smaller blade whose primary function was to add weight to the swing and to increase thereby the penetration power of the first blade. 

Some wonderful examples of ceremonial axes of this very type, made of precious stones and metals, were discovered in Troy by Schliemann in a stratum belonging to the middle of the third millennium. 

The socket-type piercing axe spread from Mesopotamia to the area of Canaan, but did not reach Egypt. Egyptian armies always made do with the tang-type axe, primarily a cutting instrument, even during much later periods when they, too, had started using the piercing axe. 

A good example of this kind of curved axe with a well-made central tang Right: crescent-shaped cutting axeblade excavated at Tell el-Hesi, 24th century BC. Spearhead at left. was found at Tell el-Hesi in Palestine (see right). An identical type was found in Jericho, together with pottery which was established as belonging to the Early Bronze III period (2600 to 2300 BC). 

This shows that the Palestinian relics were at least of the same period as the Mesopotamian, or even earlier. Additional examples of these axes from the second half of the third millennium were discovered in Syria and southern Anatolia, and from there the type spread to Egypt at the end of the third and beginning of the second millennium (see below). 

The Axe in Egypt

The Egyptians seem to have rejected the socket-type axe. The Egyptian axes in the third millennium were always wide-edged cutting weapons, and it was clearly difficult to fit such blades with a long socket. Moreover, it was comparatively easy to attach the handle to the blade by means of a tang or by cords run through holes in the rear of the blade. Egyptian soldiers with axes beseiging a walled city and attempting to scale the walls. But this explanation does not meet the point that when the first piercing axe was introduced into Egypt in a much later period, even then it was socket-less. 

Perhaps the reason is to be found in the conservatism of the ancient Egyptians. But it may be also that throughout the third millennium, Egypt had no need for a piercing axe. No evidence has been found in Egypt or in its immediate neighborhood during the third millennium, of the helmet or coat of mail, against which a piercing weapon would have been needed. 

We finds signs of early experiments to produce a hybrid weapon by fitting a metal blade to a macehead, but they failed. 

In the first half of the third millennium, the axeblades were mostly semicircular and often were fitted with lugs at the rear, on either side, to enable the handle to be bound more firmly. But starting from about 2500 BC we find the gradual introduction of the narrow blade, shaped like a slice of an orange. This was attached to a wooden handle by cords which were drawn through holes in its neck and fastened securely round lugs on either side. 

Egyptian axehead, late 3rd millennium BC The siege and battle scene shown on limestone in the tomb of Anta, at Deshashe in Upper Egypt  is most instructive on the functioning of the axe in battle. It shows very clearly the shape of the “slice axe” used by Egyptian soldiers and it also shows how it was used: it was swung with both hands and brought smartly down to deliver a sharp blow. 

In a scene from the wall painting at Saqqarah, the semicircular bladed axe is well depicted. Here it was used mainly for tearing down the wall of a besieged city (see above right). 

The Time of the Patriarchs

 It is interesting to trace the development of the flat, multi-tanged cutting axe in the second half of the previous millennium. Interestingly enough, this axe, effective largely against an enemy not equipped with helmets, fell out of use in the country of its invention, yet continued to be widely used and even perfected in the land of its adoption - Egypt. This was due, no doubt, to two factors: 

  • it conformed to the tradition of Egyptian axes, which were socketless; 

  • and it suited the pattern of warfare in Egypt during the first half of this period when the fighting was without armor, the warriors protecting themselves with a large body-shield.  

Egyptian soldier carrying eye-socketed axe, funerary temple of Mentuhotel II at Deir el-Bahri

The Egyptian epsilon axe (see above) was really a composite of two other styles: 

  • the short blade with the wide edge, which was already in use in Egypt, 

  • and the triple-tang device of the Mesopotamian, Syrian, and Palestinian axe. 

Epsilon battle axes, Middle Kingdom circa 20th century BC In the latter type, the three tangs are wedged into the haft and made secure by binding; in the Egyptian axe, the tangs have holes through which they are fastened to the haft either by small nails or with cord, or by a combination of both, similar to their earlier method of attaching blade to haft. Some typical examples of this axe are shown at right and below. At least one (right) shows that on occasion the haft itself was made of metal. 

The axe was developing quite differently in Syria, Palestine, and the neighboring region. Here, too, the weapon that emerged showed the twin influence of tradition and necessity.  

  • The tradition in these lands was the socket type; 

  • the necessity was occasioned by the appearance of helmets and armor, against which the cutting axe was ineffective. 

This led to the invention of a completely new type of axe: a piercing weapon with a socket. 

It developed out of the epsilon and the anchor axes and is commonly referred to as the eye axe (see below) because of the prominence of its two holes, which look like hollow eyes. These are really a carry over of the spaces between the two inner curves of the epsilon tang - but they are now bounded at the rear by the socket. The eye axe was a difficult weapon to produce. Some splendid examples of ceremonial axes of this type, made of gold, were found at Byblos; one is shown at the top of this page (see the image with a red background). 

Eye-socketed blade, Egyptian, Middle Kingdom The eye axe was brought to Egypt by the Semites when they started to infiltrate and establish themselves there and even serve in the army. But it did not gain acceptance, no doubt because the tradition of the tang type was too entrenched. There are, however, some Egyptian examples of the tang axe being given an eye form. 

The Syrian and Palestinian eye axe was further developed to make it a more effective piercing instrument by lengthening the blade and narrowing the edge. The hollows have become smaller and less prominent, and the whole blade assumed the appearance of a duck’s bill - which is its name. The haft was usually curved to prevent it from slipping out of the hand, for the weapon required to be swung with much force. 

This is seen in the celebrated Beni-hasan wall painting of the caravan of Semites going down to Egypt, like the Israelites. The warrior on the left bears in his right hand Detail from the Beni-hasan mural showing soldier carrying an axe with a duck-billed blade an object which looks like an axe of this type. 

In Baghouz, Syria, a cemetery was discovered belonging to this period which contained graves of warriors who had been buried with their weapons. These included duck-bill axes. 

In the 18th century BC, the duck-bill axe had already given way to a new type which was designed solely for piercing and penetration. This development was certainly prompted by advances in the development of armor. It demanded a very long blade with a narrow thin edge, almost like a chisel. This was a socket axe. These weapons were so widely used during this period that there is hardly a warrior’s grave in Palestine and Syria in which they are not to be found. 

Each stage in the development of the axe during this period, and its transformation from the epsilon tang type to the narrow-edged long-bladed socket type, reflect the untiring efforts of armies to perfect their weapons and enhance their effectiveness against the armor of their enemies. 

Egypt, Exodus, Joshua in Canaan

In this, as in the previous period, we again come across the two earlier and conflicting traditions: 

  • the Egyptians continue to stick exclusively to the tang-type axe 

  • the other more flexible lands of the Bible continue to use, in addition, the socket-type weapon. 

At the beginning of the period, particularly from the 16th to the 15th century, the Egyptian axes follow the earlier Hyksos pattern. They were piercing axes with a long, narrow blade, and wide edge. One of the finest examples is shown in the image below. It belongs to the end of the XVIIth and the beginning of the XVIIIth Dynasties, at the very outset of the New Kingdom. Ceremonial axe showing King Ahmose overcoming his enemy, circa 1570BCIt is the ceremonial axe of Queen Ahhotep, mother of two pharaohs, who received it as a present from her second son, Ahmose, the founder of the XVIIIth Dynasty, who completed the Hyksos expulsion started by his brother Kamose. Both axes are similar in shape, with a long and narrow blade which curves to a wide edge and a wide rear. The rear portion has two lugs by which the blade, whose back is inserted into the wooden haft, is tightly bound to strengthen the join. The edge is very sharp and convex, which makes it an excellent piercing weapon. 

This sort of axe was used throughout the period of the New Kingdom, though its shape underwent slight changes. Beginning from the I5th century, its blade becomes shorter and its edge narrower until eventually the edge becomes the narrowest part of the blade. The end development can be seen in the axes in the hands of Tutankhaniun’s infantrymen as depicted on the painted lid of a wooden chest found in his tomb at Thebes, belonging to the middle of the 14th century, and those borne by the soldiers of Rameses II as illuminated in the relief from the temple of Karnak, belonging to the middle of the 13th century.

Bronze axe from Beth-shan, 14th century BC

But the most interesting and indeed the most beautiful group of axes from the other lands of the Bible in this period are of the socket type. One example is shown above. The portion of the blade to the rear of the socket is fashioned into ornamental lugs, or prongs, in the shape of fingers of a hand, or an animal's mane. This had a functional and not only a decorative purpose, for the prongs gave the rear part of the axehead an operational value. The 18th-century axes from Kültepe in Anatolia and from Chagar-Bazar in northwestern Mesopotamia, which have something akin to lugs at the rear of the socket, are no doubt the prototypes of this ax (above), which is typical of the axes of the Late Bronze period.


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Bible Study Resource for Archaeology: Different type of axes: socket, tang, epsilon, anchor, eye and duck-bill; with images and descriptions

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