TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: reconstruction of main facade of reconstructed Temple of Herod the Great

 

ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE BIBLE                                        RETURN TO HOME PAGE

 

       THE TEMPLE of JERUSALEM
                                                                                                        
                                                                                               Bible Study Resource

 

WHAT There were three separate Temples: the First Temple, built by King Solomon, the Second Temple built after the return from Exile, and King Herod the Great's Temple. For images of them all, see BIBLE ARCHITECTURE: JERUSALEM
WHERE They were all built on the rock dominating the city of Jerusalem
WHEN First Temple completed circa 957BC; Second Temple in 515BC; Herod's Temple in 26AD
BIBLE LINKS Matthew 17:24, 21:23, Mark 15:38, Luke 19:45, 23:45, John 2:20, 8:20, Acts 3:2
See end of page for information on each of the three Temples   
                                 

 INTERESTING WEBSITES                                                            SCROLL DOWN FOR IMAGES

 

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 THE TABERNACLE

 

 

            TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: The site of the Temple was originally a threshing floor

            The site of the Temple was probably originally a threshing floor (see above), 
used to process grain after the harvest

 

         TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: The Ark of the Covenant a movable Tabernacle
         The Ark of the Covenant was originally held in a movable Tabernacle, 
        well suited to the needs of people who moved from place to place

 

 

              TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: Ground plan of the Tabernacle
Ground plan of the Tabernacle

 

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SOLOMON'S TEMPLE - THE FIRST TEMPLE

 

TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: Court of the Priests, Altar of Burnt Offerings, and the 'Brazen Sea' TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: the Holy of Holies
Exterior, showing Court of the Priests, Altar of Burnt Offerings, and the 'Brazen Sea' Interior of the Temple with a view into the Holy of Holies - 
the curtain would normally be closed
 

TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: the interior of a temple sanctuary
The walls of the interior of a temple sanctuary were lined with expensive wooden panels, often with a gold overlay
The Cherubim in this illustration are far too large to have been carried in procession

 

 

TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: reconstructed Ark of the Covenant                TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: Shrine of Anubis
This is how one modern artist imagined that the Ark of the Covenant may have looked
In fact, the Ark may have been similar to the Shrine of Anubis, 
a portable  gold-covered shrine discovered in the tomb of Tutankhamun (right)

For a brief version of Solomon's life story, see BIBLE PEOPLE: SOLOMON

 

 

TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: ground plan of the Temple of Solomon
Detailed ground plan of the Temple of Solomon

 

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THE RENOVATED SECOND TEMPLE, BUILT BY HEROD THE GREAT

TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: reconstruction of the main facade of reconstructed Temple of Herod the Great
Reconstruction of the Temple built by Herod the Great

For a brief version of the life of Herod the Great, see 
BIBLE PEOPLE: HEROD

 

 

TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: The Temple built by Herod the Great
The Temple built by Herod the Great was surrounded by the Court of the Gentiles

 

 

TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: aerial image of the Women's Court and  Court of the Gentiles in the Jerusalem Temple
An aerial image of the Women's Court (left, with patterned floor) and 
surrounding Court of the Gentiles in the Jerusalem Temple
(from a reconstruction built by Alec Gerrard)
This would be the place where Jesus was confronted by the woman taken in adultery, see
BIBLE WOMAN: THE ADULTEROUS WOMAN

 

 

TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: Reconstruction of the Court of the Priests
Reconstruction of the Court of the Priests
This is where Zechariah would have gone to offer sacrifice, see BIBLE WOMEN: ELIZABETH

 

 

TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: Reconstruction of the view across Jerusalem towards the Temple built by Herod the Great
Reconstruction of the view across Jerusalem towards the Temple built by Herod the Great.
At left, the Antonia Fortress; in the middle of the picture is the palace of the royal family

 

 

TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: southern face of the Temple
The southern face of the Temple, showing the grand stairway leading to the stoa or entrance portico. Model by Professor Avi-Jonah

 

 

TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: coin showing the facade of the Temple
A coin showing the facade of the Temple - 
struck by Bar Kochba, leader of the revolt in 132AD

 

 

TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: Ground plan of the Temple built by Herod the Great TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: stone sign originally positioned at the entrance of the Temple
Ground plan of the Temple built by Herod the Great Fragment of a stone sign originally positioned at the entrance of the Temple. 
It warns Gentiles that they may not enter, on pain of death.
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DESTRUCTION OF THE TEMPLE

TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: The Arch of Titus in Rome with image of the Menorah from the Temple in Jerusalem
The Arch of Titus in Rome shows an image of the Menorah from the Temple in Jerusalem
It was captured and taken as booty by the Roman troops after the Jewish Revolt 66-70AD

 

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THE WESTERN OR WAILING WALL IN JERUSALEM

TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: Western or Wailing Wall
The only remaining section of the Temple buildings erected by Herod the Great is the Western or Wailing Wall (see also below)

 

TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: Western or Wailing Wall

 

TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM: BIBLE ARCHAEOLOGY: Western or Wailing Wall
The Temple Mount seen from above

 

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 1st Temple

After King David captured the hill fortress of Jerusalem, the Ark of the Covenant was installed in a sanctuary on Mount Moriah, or the Temple Mount. David's son Solomon constructed the First Temple, completed in 957BC. The building was not large. It had three rooms: a porch, the main room of worship, and the Holy of Holies where the Ark was kept. A storehouse surrounded three sides of the Temple. 
This Temple was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon in 586BC. The Temple treasures, including the Ark, were lost.

2nd Temple The Second Temple was completed in 515BC. It was a rebuilding of the previous Temple, but on a more modest scale. 
 Herod's Temple Herod the Great rebuilt the Temple on a grand scale. It took 46 years to build, and was completed in 26AD. It was used not only for worship, but as a repository for the Scriptures and a meeting place for the Sanhedrin, the highest Jewish law court. This Temple was destroyed in 70AD after the Jewish Revolt, and its treasures taken to Rome. All that remains of it today is the Western or Wailing Wall.

 

 

 

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INTERESTING WEBSITES - stories, photographs, information

Solomon in all his glory
BIBLE PEOPLE: SOLOMON

Mad, bad and dangerous to know: King Herod the Great, and Herod Antipas
BIBLE PEOPLE: HEROD

For two of the worst villains of the Bible, see
BIBLE TOP TEN VILLAINS

More pictures and information about the great Temple of Jerusalam
JERUSALEM

For some of the stories about the Temple, see BIBLE WOMEN: ELIZABETH - Zechariah and the Angel; 
or BIBLE TOP TEN: YOUNG PEOPLE - Jesus is lost at the Temple; 
or BIBLE WOMAN: THE ADULTEROUS WOMAN - Jesus and the woman taken in adultery

 

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The Temple of Jerusalem  - Archaeology of The Bible - Bible  Study Resource
The Temple in Different Historical Periods - plans, reconstruction, information  and models